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国家记忆的政治

马德里—1970年,德国总理勃兰特访问华沙时,在犹太区起义纪念碑前突然双膝跪地,波兰共产党领导人哥穆尔卡见状小声嘀咕道,“跪错了纪念碑。”哥穆尔卡更愿意勃兰特向二战中献身的波兰将士致敬。而法律和正义党(PiS)所领导的波兰现任极端民族主义政府也许和哥穆尔卡持一样的看法。

事实上,PiS政府正在试图改写波兰的二战叙事——而不再是小声嘀咕——它制定了一项新法律,规定说“波兰民族”是大屠杀共犯的行为是犯罪。波兰人不快于“波兰死亡营”这样的称呼可以理解——这些都是德国人在被占波兰领土设立的集中营,因此也应该以这样的身份记入历史——但该法律是一次将历史用作政治工具的危险尝试。

对波兰人来说,流行的大屠杀叙事太令人失望。毕竟,三百万波兰天主教徒在二战中被杀,如果希特勒取得最终胜利的话,波兰也会从地图上消失。超过 6,700位波兰人——比其他任何国籍都要多——因为反对纳粹、拯救犹太人而被以色列授予“国际义人”。

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