pollution plastic ocean Rosemary Calvert/Getty Images

Vers un traité mondial sur les déchets plastiques

BERLIN – Si des géologues étudient encore la Terre dans plusieurs millions d’années, ils n’auront aucune difficulté à dater le début de ce que l’on appelle l’Anthropocène – cette ère géologique au cours de laquelle l’être humain a commencé à exercer une influence dominante sur l’environnement de la planète. Où qu’ils cherchent, ils trouveront les preuves évidentes de son commencement, sous la forme de déchets plastiques.

Le plastique est un matériau clé pour l’économie mondiale. On le retrouve dans les automobiles, les téléphones portables, les jouets pour enfant, les vêtements, les emballages, les dispositifs médicaux, et dans bien d’autres produits. En 2015, quelque 322 millions de tonnes métriques de plastique ont été produites à l’échelle mondiale. Et ce chiffre ne cesse d’augmenter ; d’ici 2050, il pourrait être multiplié par quatre.

Or, le plastique crée d’ores et déjà de graves problèmes environnementaux, économiques et sociaux à travers le monde. Bien que sa production nécessite certaines ressources, le plastique est si peu coûteux qu’il est bien fréquemment utilisé pour des produits jetables, bien souvent à usage unique. Résultat, une immense quantité de ce matériau finit par polluer la planète.

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