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Il problema della disuguaglianza

LONDRA – Tutti sembrano discutere, e condannare, l'attuale aumento del livello di disuguaglianza economica. Questi discorsi, e crude statistiche come quella recente di Oxfam che rivela come le 62 persone più ricche del mondo possiedano quanto i 3.6 miliardi di più poveri, alimentano il consenso popolare per politici di sinistra come Bernie Sanders in America o Jaremy Corbyn in Inghilterra. Ma la carica ideologica del dibattito banalizza una questione che é estremamente complessa ed influenzata da processi che non comprendiamo completamente.

Molti tra coloro che si impegnano nel dibatto sulla disuguaglianza fanno riferimento al libro "Il Capitale nel XXI secolo" pubblicato nel 2014 in cui l'economista francese Thomas Piketty sostiene tre argomenti chiave. Primo, negli ultimi 30 anni, il rapporto tra ricchezza e reddito è in costante aumento. Secondo, se il rendimento totale della ricchezza è superiore alla crescita dei redditi, la ricchezza sarà inevitabilmente sempre più concentrata. Terzo, prima che distrugga la società, questa tendenza all'aumento della disuguaglianza deve essere invertita attraverso una tassazione confiscatoria.

Questi tre argomenti possono a prima vista apparire convincenti. Ma il primo é poco più che lapalissiano, il secondo é falsificato dagli stessi dati di Piketty, il che rende il terzo irrilevante.

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