Migración en continuo movimiento

LONDRES – En 2000, Naciones Unidas estableció los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio (ODM) para impulsar el progreso en objetivos de desarrollo importantes, como reducir la pobreza, promover la igualdad de géneros y frenar las enfermedades. Pero los arquitectos de los ODM ignoraron una cuestión esencial: la migración. Afortunadamente, parece que los líderes mundiales no cometerán el mismo error con la agenda de desarrollo post-2015.

El volumen de las remesas por sí solo debería bastar para convencer al mundo de que la migración merece un lugar prominente en la agenda post-2015. El año pasado, los inmigrantes provenientes de países en desarrollo enviaron aproximadamente 414.000 millones de dólares a sus familias -el triple del total de la asistencia para el desarrollo oficial-. Más de mil millones de personas dependen de esos fondos para ayudar a pagar la educación, la atención médica, el agua y las instalaciones sanitarias. Como si eso no fuera suficiente, las remesas tienen importantes beneficios macroeconómicos, ya que les permiten a los países pagar importaciones esenciales, acceder a los mercados de capital privados y calificar para tasas de interés más bajas sobre deuda soberana.

Pero muchos de los beneficios de la migración se despilfarran. Los intermediarios financieros retienen el 9% de las remesas, en promedio, por un total estimado de 49.000 millones de dólares en ganancias de los inmigrantes el año pasado. Los reclutadores rapaces, que suelen quedarse con un tercio del salario de los inmigrantes, esquilman miles de millones más. Mientras tanto, el contrabando, el tráfico de personas, la explotación y la discriminación se cobran un costo humano incalculable.

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