移民动起来

伦敦—2000年,联合国出台了千年发展计划(MDG)以推动减少贫困、促进性别平等和治疗疾病等方面的重要发展目标。但MDG的设计者忽略了一个关键问题:移民。幸运的是,世界领导人在2015年后的发展日程中似乎不会再犯同样的错误。

光是侨汇规模便应已足以让世界确信移民应该在2015年后的发展日程中获得重要的一席之地。去年,发展中国家移民向国内家人汇去4,140亿美元——是正式发展援助的三倍。超过十亿人依赖于这一资金来源支付教育、医疗、水和卫生服务。更进一步地看,侨汇还有重要的宏观经济好处,让国家能够支付重要的进口品、获得进入私人资本市场的机会、拉低主权债务的利率。

但许多移民的好处被白白浪费了。金融中介平均要从侨汇中抽头9%,去年因此赚得490亿收入。贪得无厌的招工头往往会拿走移民收入的三分之一,他们也赚得数百亿。与此同时,走私、拐卖、剥削和歧视都在对移民造成着不可估量的伤害。

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