Dokonalí Neználkové

LONDÝN – Ekonomie, jak se zdá, nám o současné hospodářské krizi dokáže říct jen málo. Ostatně nebyl to nikdo menší než bývalý předseda Federálního rezervního systému Spojených států Alan Greenspan, kdo se nedávno přiznal, že události poslední doby „rozvrátily“ veškeré jeho „intelektuální základy“.

Prohrabeme-li se však sutinami, můžeme objevit užitečné úlomky. Jeden z nich se nazývá „asymetrické informace“. Znamená to, že někteří lidé vědí o čemsi víc než jiní. To asi není úplně překvapivý objev. Ale uplatněme ho na kupce a prodejce. Předpokládejme, že prodejce určitého produktu ví o jeho vlastnostech víc než jeho kupec anebo obráceně. Dějí se zajímavé věci – tak zajímavé, že původci této myšlenky dostali Nobelovu cenu za ekonomii.

V roce 1970 otiskl George Akerlof proslulé pojednání „Trh pro šunky“ (The Market for Lemons). Hlavním příkladem mu byl trh s ojetými vozy. Kupec netuší, zda mu nabízejí slušné auto, anebo „šunku“. Nejspíš usoudí, že se jedná o vozidlo průměrné kvality, za něž zaplatí jedině průměrnou cenu. Poněvadž majitel nemůže za dobrý vůz získat dobrou cenu, slušná auta se na trh nedostanou. Průměrná kvalita ojetých aut nabízených k prodeji se tedy sníží. Vozy v dobrém stavu vytlačí šunky.

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