Paz  mediante la reconciliación

NUEVA YORK –Puede ser accidental o puede que no, pero, precisamente cuando se ha puesto en marcha la ofensiva militar del Presidente de los Estados Unidos, Barack Obama, el Presidente del Afganistán, Hamid Karzai, se ha lanzado por fin a hacer gestiones en serio en pro de la reconciliación nacional. El elemento fundamental de ese proceso es la búsqueda de algún medio para reintegrar al menos a alguna parte de los talibanes en la sociedad y en las actividades productivas. Para cumplir los requisitos con vistas a dicha reintegración, los talibanes tendrán que deponer las armas, renunciar a su conexión con Al Qaeda y acceder a respetar la legislación afgana.

Ese cambio de política es un paralelismo necesario con las medidas militares que se están aplicando. También es un reconocimiento tardía de que las políticas de “desarrollo como de costumbre” aplicadas en el Afganistán hasta ahora han fracasado. De hecho, como se ha demostrado lamentablemente, las antiguas políticas nunca iban a bastar para galvanizar el apoyo público afgano, en particular para un nuevo incremento de las fuerzas militares.

Hace ocho años, el Afganistán se lanzó a cuatro transiciones distintas: una transición en materia de seguridad para alejarse de la violencia y la inseguridad; una transición política a una sociedad basada en gobiernos participativos y el Estado de derecho; una transición social de las confrontaciones tribales y étnicas a la reconciliación nacional; y una transición económica para transformar una economía degradada por la guerra e inestable en otra viable en la que el pueblo pueda ganarse la vida decente y legalmente.

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