La paix par la réconciliation en Afghanistan

NEW YORK – La coïncidence est sans doute fortuite, mais le président Barack Obama lance une offensive militaire en Afghanistan, alors même que le président afghan Hamid Karzaï consent enfin un sérieux effort de réconciliation nationale. Pour y parvenir, le premier objectif à atteindre sera de trouver des moyens pour la réintégration des talibans dans la vie sociale et active, du moins d’un grand nombre d’entre eux. Déposer les armes, renoncer à tout lien avec Al qaida et accepter de respecter les lois afghanes seront les préalables à poser à leur réintégration.

Ce changement de politique est le corollaire nécessaire à l’offensive menée aujourd’hui. Il signe également la reconnaissance tardive de l’échec des stratégies classiques suivies jusqu’ici en Afghanistan. Comme elles en ont fait la pénible démonstration, ces stratégies n’ont jamais réussi à gagner le soutien du peuple afghan, notamment s’agissant d’un déploiement militaire de plus.

L’Afghanistan a amorcé il y a huit ans une phase de transition sur quatre plans: sécuritaire, en mettant fin aux violences et à l’insécurité; politique, en instaurant un gouvernement de participation et l’état de droit; social, en passant de l’affrontement tribal et ethnique à la réconciliation nationale; et économique, en transformant une économie instable et ravagée par la guerre en une économie viable, permettant aux gens de gagner décemment leur vie dans la légalité.

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