Microeconomia para Todos

TOULOUSE – Durante o último meio século, as melhores universidades do mundo ensinaram microeconomia através da lente do modelo de equilíbrio concorrencial geral de Arrow-Debreu. O modelo, que formaliza um princípio central d’ A Riqueza das Nações de Adam Smith, corporiza a beleza, a simplicidade, e a falta de realismo dos dois teoremas fundamentais do equilíbrio concorrencial, em contraste com a confusão e complexidade das modificações realizadas pelos economistas num esforço de melhor capturar a maneira como, na realidade, o mundo funciona. Por outras palavras, enquanto os investigadores tentam compreender situações complexas e reais, os estudantes contemplam cenários hipotéticos e irrealistas.

Esta abordagem educativa deriva largamente da ideia sensata de ser mais útil, para os estudantes, uma estrutura para pensar sobre os problemas económicos, do que uma manta de retalhos de modelos. Mas esta ideia tem ficado sobrecarregada por outra e mais perniciosa noção: à medida que as derivações do modelo de Arrow-Debreu se tornam mais realistas, e portanto mais complexas, tornam-se menos adequadas à sala de aula. Por outras palavras, o “verdadeiro” pensamento microeconómico deve ser deixado aos peritos.

Com certeza, os modelos básicos – por exemplo, as teorias do monopólio e do oligopólio simples, a teoria dos bens públicos, ou a simples teoria da informação assimétrica – têm algum valor educativo. Mas poucos investigadores os usam no seu trabalho. As teorias essenciais à pesquisa microeconómica – contratos incompletos, mercados bilaterais, análise de risco, escolha intertemporal, sinalização de mercados, microestrutura de mercados financeiros, fiscalidade óptima, e desenho de mecanismos – são muito mais complicadas, e exigem uma delicadeza excepcional para evitar a deselegância. Por isso, são na sua maior parte excluídas dos manuais.

To continue reading, please log in or enter your email address.

Registration is quick and easy and requires only your email address. If you already have an account with us, please log in. Or subscribe now for unlimited access.

required

Log in

http://prosyn.org/SVsxmBl/pt;
  1. Chris J Ratcliffe/Getty Images

    The Brexit Surrender

    European Union leaders meeting in Brussels have given the go-ahead to talks with Britain on post-Brexit trade relations. But, as European Council President Donald Tusk has said, the most difficult challenge – forging a workable deal that secures broad political support on both sides – still lies ahead.

  2. The Great US Tax Debate

    ROBERT J. BARRO vs. JASON FURMAN & LAWRENCE H. SUMMERS on the impact of the GOP tax  overhaul.


    • Congressional Republicans are finalizing a tax-reform package that will reshape the business environment by lowering the corporate-tax rate and overhauling deductions. 

    • But will the plan's far-reaching changes provide the boost to investment and growth that its backers promise?


    ROBERT J. BARRO | How US Corporate Tax Reform Will Boost Growth

    JASON FURMAN & LAWRENCE H. SUMMERS | Robert Barro's Tax Reform Advocacy: A Response

  3. Murdoch's Last Stand?

    Rupert Murdoch’s sale of 21st Century Fox’s entertainment assets to Disney for $66 billion may mark the end of the media mogul’s career, which will long be remembered for its corrosive effect on democratic discourse on both sides of the Atlantic. 

    From enabling the rise of Donald Trump to hacking the telephone of a murdered British schoolgirl, Murdoch’s media empire has staked its success on stoking populist rage.

  4. Bank of England Leon Neal/Getty Images

    The Dangerous Delusion of Price Stability

    Since the hyperinflation of the 1970s, which central banks were right to combat by whatever means necessary, maintaining positive but low inflation has become a monetary-policy obsession. But, because the world economy has changed dramatically since then, central bankers have started to miss the monetary-policy forest for the trees.

  5. Harvard’s Jeffrey Frankel Measures the GOP’s Tax Plan

    Jeffrey Frankel, a professor at Harvard University’s Kennedy School of Government and a former member of President Bill Clinton’s Council of Economic Advisers, outlines the five criteria he uses to judge the efficacy of tax reform efforts. And in his view, the US Republicans’ most recent offering fails miserably.

  6. A box containing viles of human embryonic Stem Cell cultures Sandy Huffaker/Getty Images

    The Holy Grail of Genetic Engineering

    CRISPR-Cas – a gene-editing technique that is far more precise and efficient than any that has come before it – is poised to change the world. But ensuring that those changes are positive – helping to fight tumors and mosquito-borne illnesses, for example – will require scientists to apply the utmost caution.

  7. The Year Ahead 2018

    The world’s leading thinkers and policymakers examine what’s come apart in the past year, and anticipate what will define the year ahead.

    Order now