人人适用的微观经济学

发自图卢兹——在过去半个世纪,全球顶尖学府都通过阿罗-德布鲁(Arrow-Debreu)一般竞争性均衡模型的视角来教授微观经济学。相对于经济学家们为更好地掌握世界真实运作方式而进行的纷繁复杂修正,该模型作为亚当·斯密《国富论》核心观点的形式化体现,表现了竞争性均衡两大基本原理的美感,简约,以及缺乏真实感。换句话说,当研究人员试图把握复杂的现实状况时,学生却在进行不切实际的推理。

这种教育方式主要源于一个看似合情合理的观点,认为一个针对经济问题的思考框架比一堆杂乱无章的模型对学生更有裨益。但这也衍生出另一种更有害的观念:既然阿罗-德布鲁模型之外的思考变得更现实也因此更为复杂,那就不适用于课堂教学。换句话说,“真正的”微观经济学思考应该留给专家们。

可以肯定的是,基本模型——例如垄断与简单的寡头垄断理论,公共产品理论,或简单的信息不对称理论——都有一定的教育价值,但研究者其实很少在工作中用到这些。微观经济学的面包和黄油理论——契约的不完备性,双边市场,风险分析,跨时空的选择,市场信号,金融市场微观结构,税制优化,以及机制设计——更加复杂,需要高超的阐述技巧才能免于粗陋。有鉴于此,它们大部分都被排除在教科书以外。

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