Pád Samuelsonovy jistoty

LONDÝN – Číst Výbor ze Samuelsona ve stínu Velké recese znamená nahlédnout do myšlenkového rámce dávno minulé éry. Výbor sestává z týdenních komentářů Paula Samuelsona pro časopis Newsweek v letech 1966-1973.

Samuelson, laureát Nobelovy ceny, byl doyenem amerických ekonomů: jeho slavná učebnice Ekonomie prošla za autorova života čtrnácti vydáními a do základů nauky uvedla budoucí ekonomy z celého světa. Nebyl výhradním původcem, ale velkým popularizátorem „neoklasické syntézy“ – směsi neoklasické a keynesiánské ekonomie, která v oboru 50 let určovala hlavní proud.

Samuelson byl přesvědčený keynesiánec, přestože v omezeném smyslu. Jako zbytečnou odmítal většinu Keynesových útoků na zažitou ekonomii jeho doby a napsal, že „kdyby Keynes [začal] od prostého konstatování, že pokládá za realistické předpokládat, že nominální mzdy… jsou ulpívavé a vzdorují sestupným pohybům…, většina jeho postřehů by nebyla o nic méně platná“. Opravdovým Keynesovým přispěním byly pro Samuelsona nástroje, jež dal vládám k předcházení depresí.

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