Запатентованное процветание

КЕМБРИДЖ: Многие знают о том, что по части доходов в данный момент развитой и развивающийся миры разделяет огромная пропась. Гораздо меньшее число людей понимает, что разрыв между богатыми и бедными в смысле науки и технологии еще шире, чем денежное неравенство.

В то время, как население богатых стран насчитывает 16 процентов от населения всего земного шара, а его покупательная способность составляет примерно 60 процентов от мировой, этим странам принадлежит около 99 процентов патентов на новые изобретения, выданных в последние годы в Соединенных Штатах и странах Европы. Если мы серьезно хотим сократить существующее между богатыми и бедными странами неравенство в доходах, то нам стоило бы серьезно задуматься о том, как поднять научно-техническую отдачу при решении проблем бедных стран.

В сегодняшнем мире экономическое процветание вызывается не наличием природных ресурсов и не объемами промышленного производства, скажем, стали или уголя, а внедрением новых идей и новых продуктов. Динамичная американская экономика во многом обязана своим подавляющим преимуществом потрясающей способности к инновациям - идет ли речь об информационных технологиях (таких, как программное обеспечение и материальная база компьютеров), или же о биотехнологии (скажем, о создании новых медикаментов и новых сортов растений), либо же о новых телекоммуникационных технологиях (например, о передовой оптиковолоконной технике и орбитальных спутниках).

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