Repensar las instituciones internacionales

OXFORD – Cuando se establecieron las instituciones de las Naciones Unidas y Bretton Woods tras la Segunda Guerra Mundial, hace casi siete décadas, el poder económico y político estaba concentrado en manos de unos pocos países «victoriosos»; lograr consensos sobre cómo restaurar el orden internacional era entonces relativamente fácil. Pero, desde entonces, la gobernanza global se ha tornado cada vez más confusa e obstaculizando los avances en áreas que afectan a todo el mundo.

No solo son más de 190 los países que actualmente forman parte de la ONU; también han proliferado instituciones internacionales con financiamiento público y ni siquiera se ha cerrado una sola institución multilateral desde la Segunda Guerra Mundial. El resultado es una amalgama ineficiente y confusa de mandatos superpuestos.

Mientras tanto, porciones significativas del sistema internacional carecen de financiamiento suficiente para lograr progresos significativos en áreas críticas, un problema que solo empeorará a medida que crezcan las necesidades y expectativas de una población mundial en continua expansión. En este contexto, los avances en temas mundiales –como el cambio climático, los delitos informáticos, la desigualdad del ingreso y la crónica carga de enfermedades– resultan esquivos.

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