Ripensare le istituzioni internazionali

OXFORD – Quando, all'indomani della seconda guerra mondiale, quasi settant'anni fa, furono create le Nazioni Unite e le istituzioni di Bretton Woods, il potere politico ed economico era concentrato nelle mani di pochi paesi "vincitori", pertanto fu relativamente semplice raggiungere un accordo su come ristabilire l'ordine internazionale. Da allora, però, la governance globale è diventata sempre più confusa, e questo ha impedito di fare progressi in settori d’interesse a livello mondiale.

Ora, non solo più di 190 paesi appartengono alle Nazioni Unite, ma le istituzioni internazionali finanziate con soldi pubblici si sono moltiplicate, e dalla seconda guerra mondiale a oggi nessuna di esse ha cessato di esistere. Il risultato è un amalgama inefficiente e confuso di mandati che si sovrappongono.

Nel frattempo, ampie porzioni del sistema internazionale mancano dei fondi sufficienti per promuovere lo sviluppo in aree critiche, un problema, questo, destinato a peggiorare man mano che aumenteranno le esigenze e le aspettative di una popolazione globale in continua espansione. In tale contesto, i passi avanti su problemi globali come il cambiamento climatico, la criminalità informatica, la disuguaglianza del reddito e l'incubo cronico delle malattie appaiono alquanto incerti.

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