La nécessité de repenser les institutions internationales

OXFORD – À l’époque où furent instaurées les Nations Unies et les institutions de Bretton Woods, il y a presque soixante-dix ans, au lendemain de la Seconde Guerre mondiale, le pouvoir économique et politique était concentré entre les mains d’une poignée d’États « victorieux, » ce qui facilitait relativement l’obtention d’un consensus sur la manière de restaurer l’ordre international. Depuis, en revanche, l’exercice de la gouvernance globale s’est peu à peu complexifié, entravant le progrès dans un certain nombre de domaines constitutifs de préoccupations mondiales.

Non seulement plus de 190 pays appartiennent désormais Nations Unies, mais les institutions internationales publiquement financées se sont par ailleurs multipliées, l’ensemble des institutions multilatérales ayant perduré depuis la Seconde Guerre mondiale. Il en résulte un amalgame inefficace et confus de mandats enchevêtrés.

Dans le même temps, plusieurs pans significatifs du système international souffrent d’un manque de financement nécessaire à l’accomplissement de progrès tangibles dans un certain nombre de domaines critiques – difficulté vouée à s’empirer à mesure du renforcement des besoins et des attentes d’une population mondiale toujours plus nombreuse. Dans ce contexte, la réalisation d’avancées sur des problématiques globales telles que le changement climatique, la cybercriminalité, les inégalités de revenu, ou encore le poids chronique des maladies, ne cesse de nous échapper.

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