Parteien und Populisten

Die Zeiten sind nicht gut für politische Parteien, vor allem nicht für solche mit traditioneller Ausrichtung. Vorbei die Tage in den älteren Demokratien, als zwei Großparteien - eine sozialdemokratische und eine eher rechts der Mitte positionierte – die politische Bühne beherrschten.

In den neuen Demokratien der postkommunistischen Welt sind derartige Zweiparteiensysteme überhaupt nie entstanden. Heutzutage können die zwei größten Parteien eines Landes selten darauf hoffen, eine Zweidrittelmehrheit an Stimmen zu erringen. Gar nicht so selten muss eine „große Koalition“ gebildet werden. Die restlichen Stimmen verteilen sich auf viele unterschiedliche Gruppierungen – außer es bildet sich eine politische Kraft, die durch die Beschwörung nationalistischer oder sozialistischer Gefühle - oder einer Mischung aus beidem - die alten Parteienstrukturen radikal aufbricht.

Dieser Niedergang der Parteien spiegelt auch den Niedergang der Klassen wider. Das alte Proletariat und die alte Bourgeoisie sind verschwunden. An ihre Stelle trat eine manchmal so bezeichnete „nivellierte Mittelstandsgesellschaft“, an deren einem Ende sich allerdings eine bedeutende Elite der Superreichen befindet und am anderen eine Unterschicht.

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