党派与民粹主义者

现在的政党日子并不好过,特别是那些有传统倾向的政党。以前的民主国家,两个大党——一个社会民主党,另一个则相对右倾——就能掌控政坛,这样的时代已经一去不返。

在后共产主义的新兴民主国家里,这样的两党制从未出现过。如今,两个最大的党派很少有机会抓住三分之二的大众选票,相互组成“大联盟”的情况倒是屡见不鲜。剩下的选票则被多方分割——除非原来的党派结构以外出现一股能够激起大众的民族主义情感和/或社会主义情感的政治力量。

党派的衰落反映了阶级的衰落。旧的无产阶级和旧的资产阶级已不复存在,取而代之的是所谓的“椭圆形中产阶级社会”,纵使其两端分别为极其富有的精英阶层和下层社会。

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