Forest and industrial field with pollution overhead

De las buenas intenciones a la descarbonización profunda

NUEVA YORK – En las preliminares de la Conferencia de las Naciones Unidas sobre Cambio Climático (COP21) en París, más de 150 gobiernos enviaron planes para reducir las emisiones de dióxido de carbono de aquí a 2030. Muchos observadores se preguntan si estas reducciones son suficientes. Pero hay una pregunta todavía más importante: ¿servirá el camino elegido hasta 2030 de base para poner fin a las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero después de ese año?

Según el consenso científico, la estabilización del clima demanda la descarbonización total de nuestros sistemas energéticos y reducir a cero las emisiones netas de gases de efecto invernadero más o menos en 2070. El G7 reconoció que la descarbonización (único modo de salvarnos de un desastre climático) es la meta por excelencia de este siglo. Y muchos jefes de Estado del G20 y otros países declararon públicamente su intención de seguir este camino.

Sin embargo, los países reunidos en la COP21 todavía no están negociando la descarbonización, sino una serie de pasos mucho más modestos, de aquí a 2025 o 2030, llamados Contribuciones Nacionales (INDC, por las siglas en inglés). La de Estados Unidos, por ejemplo, supone un compromiso de reducir las emisiones de CO2 en un 26 a 28%, respecto de los valores de 2005, a más tardar en 2025.

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