Man standing at lake in mountains.

El pragmatismo en la política climática

BERLÍN – El empeño diplomático para forjar un acuerdo internacional a fin de mitigar el cambio climático está experimentando un cambio fundamental. Se está substituyendo poco a poco el planteamiento descendente que ha guiado dicho empeño desde 1992 por un modelo ascendente. En lugar de intentar preparar un acuerdo basado en restricciones legalmente vinculantes de las emisiones de gases que provocan el efecto de invernadero, el nuevo planteamiento se basa en compromisos voluntarios por los países particulares de controlar sus contribuciones al cambio climático.

En cierto sentido, se trata del reconocimiento de un fracaso; no es probable que semejante planteamiento limite el aumento de las temperaturas mundiales a menos de dos grados centígrados, el objetivo fijado por las Naciones Unidas en 2010, pero, en vista del lento ritmo de avances logrado hasta ahora, unos pequeños pasos pragmáticos por determinados países pueden ser más productivos que los intentos de lograr un gran pacto que sigue siendo imposible de conseguir.

Los negociadores internacionales han logrado avances importantes en los cinco últimos años, pero siguen aún muy alejados de un acuerdo con el que se pudiera cumplir el objetivo de dos grados centígrados. A consecuencia de ello, los diplomáticos, temiendo que otro intento fracasado de lograr un acuerdo mundial podría desacreditar todo el proceso negociador, han reajustado sus ambiciones.

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