Man standing at lake in mountains.

Pragmatismus in der Klimapolitik

BERLIN – Die diplomatischen Bemühungen um ein internationales Abkommen zur Abschwächung des Klimawandels unterliegen derzeit einem grundlegenden Wandel. Der diesen Bemühungen seit 1992 zugrunde liegende Top-Down-Ansatz wird allmählich durch ein Bottom-Up-Modell ersetzt. Statt des Versuchs, ein Abkommen auf Grundlage rechtlich verbindlicher Beschränkungen des Treibgasausstoßes zu erzielen, basiert der neue Ansatz vielmehr auf freiwilligen Zusagen einzelner Länder, ihren jeweiligen Beitrag zum Klimawandel einzudämmen.

Dabei handelt es sich in gewissem Sinne um ein Eingeständnis des Scheiterns, denn mit einem derartigen Ansatz wird man eine Begrenzung des weltweiten Temperaturanstiegs um weniger als  2 Grad Celsius,  den von den Vereinten Nationen 2010 festgelegten Zielwert,  wohl nicht erreichen. Doch angesichts des bislang schleppenden Fortschritts sind kleine pragmatische Schritte der einzelnen Länder möglicherweise weit produktiver als Versuche, ein umfassendes Abkommen zu erzielen, das für immer unerreichbar bleibt.  

Den internationalen Verhandlern gelangen in den letzten fünf Jahren zwar beträchtliche Fortschritte, doch von einem Abkommen, mit dem man das 2-Grad-Ziel erreichen würde, ist man nach wie vor weit entfernt. Daher haben die Diplomaten aus Angst, das erneute Scheitern eines globalen Abkommen könnte den gesamten Verhandlungsprozess diskreditieren, ihre Ambitionen redimensioniert. 

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