Man standing at lake in mountains.

Une approche pragmatique de la politique climatique

BERLIN – Les efforts diplomatiques menés en vue d’un accord international permettant d’atténuer le changement climatique sont en train de radicalement changer. L’approche descendante, du haut en bas, qui caractérisaient ces efforts depuis 1992 est peu à peu remplacée par un modèle ascendant. Au lieu de tenter de parvenir à un accord basé sur des limitations juridiquement contraignantes des émissions de gaz à effet de serre, la nouvelle approche repose sur l’engagement volontaire des pays à limiter leur contribution au changement climatique.

Cette évolution est, d’une certaine manière, l’aveu d’un échec. Il est peu probable que cette approche parvienne à limiter la hausse des températures moyennes mondiales en deçà de 2°C, l’objectif fixé par les Nations unies en 2010. Mais compte tenu du peu de progrès enregistré jusqu’à présent, de petites avancées pragmatiques par chaque pays pourraient être plus productives que les tentatives faites pour conclure un accord de grande ampleur qui ne sera jamais appliqué.

Les négociateurs internationaux ont réalisé des progrès considérables au cours des cinq dernières années, mais ils sont encore loin de parvenir à un accord qui réponde à l’objectif des 2°C. En conséquence, les diplomates, craignant qu’un nouvel échec discrédite tout le processus de négociation, ont revu leurs ambitions à la baisse.

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