The Asahi Shimbun/Getty Images

Mengapa Energi Terbarukan Saja Tidak Cukup

NEW DELHI – Di Markas PBB di New York pada tanggal 22 April, para pemimpin dunia meratifikasi perjanjian perubahan iklim yang disepakati di Paris bulan Desember lalu. Sebanyak 195 negara, dari negara terkaya hingga termiskin, kini sepakat untuk menekan pemanasan global di bawah 2°C dibandingkan masa pra-industri, dengan tujuan tidak melampaui 1.5°C. Mereka juga berkomitmen pada rencana aksi nasional (“intended nationally determined contributions” (kontribusi nasional), atau “INDCs”) untuk membatasi atau menurunkan emisi gas rumah kaca pada tahun 2030. Ini merupakan prestasi besar namun dianggap belum mencukupi.

Faktanya, meskipun seluruh target INDC berhasil diwujudkan, bumi tetap akan mengalami pemanasan sekitar 2.7-3.4°C di atas tingkat pra-industri. Untuk menjaga kenaikan suhu di bawah 2°C, penurunan emisi karbon pada tahun 2030 harus lebih dari target yang ditetapkan dalam INDC yaitu di atas 30%.

Ini merupakan tantangan besar, mengingat adanya kebutuhan atas pertumbuhan ekonomi yang tinggi di saat yang sama. Sebelum menginjak akhir abad ini, kita harus berusaha memastikan semua penduduk dunia – mungkin nantinya berjumlah 10 miliar jiwa – mempunyai standar kehidupan yang saat ini hanya dinikmati oleh kaum 10% terkaya di dunia. Ini memerlukan kenaikan konsumsi energi secara besar-besaran. Rata-rata penduduk Afrika misalnya hanya menggunakan 10% energi dibandingkan rata-rata di Eropa. Namun pada tahun 2050, kita harus mengurangi emisi GRK yang terkait dengan sektor energi sebanyak 70% dari tingkat di tahun 2010 dengan penurunan lebih besar perlu dilakukan demi mencapai emisi nihil pada tahun 2060.

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