Global warming ice caps melting Mario Tama / Getty Images

Realismo radicale sul cambiamento climatico

BERLINO – La politica convenzionale, per definizione, è mal equipaggiata per immaginare un cambiamento radicale. Ma lo scorso dicembre a Parigi, 196 governi hanno sottolineato di comune accordo la necessità di limitare il riscaldamento globale a 1,5°C al di sopra dei livelli preindustriali – un obiettivo che promette di compiere esattamente una trasformazione di questo genere. Per raggiungerlo bisognerà superare delle sfide politiche serie, riflesse nel fatto che alcuni invocano soluzioni che finiranno per fare più danni che altro.

Una strategia che ha raccolto molti consensi si focalizza sulla necessità di sviluppare interventi tecnologici su vasta scala atti a controllare il termostato globale. I fautori delle tecnologie geoingegneristiche sostengono che le tradizionali misure di adattamento e mitigazione semplicemente non stanno riducendo le emissioni a una velocità tale da evitare un riscaldamento pericoloso. A loro avviso, le tecnologie come la “cattura e stoccaggio di carbonio” (CCS, Carbon Capture and Storage) sono necessarie per limitare danni e sofferenze umane.

Il Panel internazionale per il riscaldamento climatico sembra concordare. Nel suo quinto rapporto di valutazione, crea gli scenari per soddisfare gli obiettivi di Parigi sul clima attorno al concetto di “emissioni negative” – ossia, l’abilità di rimuovere dall’atmosfera il diossido di carbonio in eccesso.

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