Pour un objectif climatique viable

BERLIN – En décembre dernier à Paris, 195 gouvernements sont parvenus à un consensus sur la manière de maîtriser les changements climatiques ces prochaines décennies. Mais comme souvent dans le cas des Nations unies, l’accord conclu par les parties est ambitieux dans ses intentions déclarées, mais bien plus modeste en matière d’engagements en vue d’une action concrète.

L’Accord de Paris sur les changements climatiques comprend un engagement à contenir « l’élévation de la température moyenne de la planète nettement en dessous de 2°C par rapport aux niveaux préindustriels ».  Et à la demande des pays les plus vulnérables, l’accord se fixe de « poursuivre l’action menée pour limiter l’élévation de la température à 1,5°C ».

Malheureusement, les engagements stipulés par le traité ne sont pas à la hauteur de ces aspirations. Le système d’engagements d’atténuation volontaire permettra aux émissions de gaz à effet de serre d’augmenter jusqu’en 2030, avec une élévation moyenne probable des températures de 3 à 3,5°C à l’horizon 2100. Il s’agit là d’une illustration parfaite d’incohérence de l’élaboration des politiques.

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