Eiffel Tower in Paris, France

El enfoque de París para la gobernanza global

WASHINGTON, DC – Como ex presidenta a la Sociedad Estadounidense de Derecho Internacional, debería lamentar como un fracaso el reciente acuerdo de París sobre el cambio climático. Si se mira con un tratado tradicional, le falta mucho camino por recorrer. Sin embargo, esas mismas insuficiencias son sus mayores fortalezas como modelo de gobernanza global eficaz en el siglo veintiuno.

La regla de oro del derecho internacional es el tratado, un documento vinculante que pueda ser ejercido por cortes y tribunales de arbitraje. Son acuerdos que van más allá de las expresiones de interés: comprenden normas codificables y aplicables, además de sanciones por su incumplimiento. De hecho, tienen que ser ratificados por los parlamentos nacionales para convertirse en leyes nacionales.

El acuerdo de París no es ninguna de estas cosas. Para efectos legales, en Estados Unidos es un acuerdo ejecutivo que resulta vinculante sólo para la administración del Presidente Obama. Un acuerdo ejecutivo-legislativo tendría el mismo efecto que un tratado, con la excepción de que éste debe ser ratificado primero por dos tercios del Senado, mientras que el primero debe ser adoptado por el senado y la Cámara bajo las mismas normas que se aplican a todas las leyes nacionales. Si una administración firma un acuerdo ejecutivo, no es necesariamente vinculante sobre su sucesora, pero tendría que ser repudiarse explícitamente para no seguirse.

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