Eiffel Tower in Paris, France

全球治理的巴黎方针

华盛顿—作为美国国际法协会(American Society of International Law)前主席,我应该沉痛宣布最新的气候变化巴黎协定是一场失败。用传统条约的标准衡量,它可以说是一无是处。但它在这方面的弱点正是其作为二十一世纪有效全球治理模式的最大优势。

国际法律金本位是这样的条约:它是可以通过法庭和仲裁庭执行的具有法律约束力的文件。这样的协定不仅要包含意图表达;还需要法典化,包含可执行的规则以及对不遵守的制裁。事实上,它们必须获得国家议会的批准,从而成为本国法律的一部分。

巴黎协定没有这些内容。在美国,作为国内法,它是一项执法协定,只能约束总统奥巴马的政府。执法-立法协定具有与条约同样的地位,但条约必须得到三分之二参议员批准,而执法-立法条约必须根据适用于一切国内立法的规则被参议院和众议院批准。由一届政府签订的执法协定未必对下一任政府具有约束力,但必须明确驳回。

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