Das gespaltene Haus Palästina

Der Aufruf Präsident George W. Bushs zu einer neuen Friedenskonferenz für Israel, Palästina und benachbarte Staaten, die eine Zweistaatenlösung unterstützen, ist eine willkommene, wenn auch sehr verspätete Entwicklung. Doch stoßen die Bemühungen, den Friedensprozess jetzt wieder anzukurbeln, auf eine trostlose neue Realität: Zwei einander feindlich gesonnene, palästinensische Einheiten im von der Hamas regierten Gaza-Streifen und im von der Fatah geführten Westjordanland müssen nun als Faktoren in den Prozess miteinbezogen werden.

Die Konfrontation zwischen Hamas und Fatah kennzeichnet eine dramatische Verschiebung in der palästinensischen Politik, deren oberste Prioritäten bislang ein Ende der israelischen Besatzung und die Gründung eines unabhängigen Staates waren. Sie verkompliziert auch die Friedensverhandlungen ungeheuer, für die sowohl die Palästinenser als auch das „Nahost-Quartett“ (Vereinigte Staaten, Europäische Union, Vereinte Nationen und Russland) die Prämisse gesetzt hatten, dass der Gaza-Streifen und das Westjordanland als eine territoriale Einheit beibehalten werden.

Ironischerweise wurden diese Gebiete nach 19 Jahren der Trennung durch Israels Sieg im Krieg von 1967 wiedervereinigt. Zuvor hatte Ägypten im Gaza-Streifen regiert, während Jordanien das Westjordanland annektierte. Unter der israelischen Besatzung und mit der späteren Gründung der Palästinensischen Autonomiebehörde (PA) 1994 blieben die Gebiete geografisch getrennt, nicht jedoch politisch. Die Machtübernahme der Hamas in Gaza hat diese politische Vereinigung – vorerst zumindest – beendet.

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