La maison palestinienne divisée

La proposition par le président George W. Bush de tenir une nouvelle conférence de paix avec Israël, la Palestine et les pays voisins en proposant une nouvelle solution à deux États est un développement certes tardif, mais bienvenu. Cependant, ces tentatives de redémarrage du processus de paix font désormais face à une nouvelle réalité : deux entités palestiniennes mutuellement hostiles, dans la bande de Gaza (que tient le Hamas) et en Cisjordanie (dirigée par le Fatah), doivent désormais être prises en compte.

La confrontation Hamas/Fatah marque un virage radical de la politique palestinienne, dont les priorités premières étaient jusqu’ici de mettre fin à l’occupation israélienne et d’établir un État indépendant. Elle complique aussi énormément les négociations de paix, qui, tant pour les Palestiniens que pour le “Quartet” (États-Unis, Union européenne, Nations Unies et Russie), reposaient sur la définition de Gaza et de la Cisjordanie en tant que seul et même territoire.

Ironie du sort, c’est par la victoire d’Israël lors de la guerre de 1967 que ces territoires furent réunis après 19 années de séparation. Auparavant, l’Égypte régnait sur Gaza et la Jordanie avait annexé la Cisjordanie. Sous l’occupation israélienne, puis avec l’établissement de l’Autorité palestinienne en 1994, les territoires sont restés séparés géographiquement, mais pas politiquement. La prise de Gaza par le Hamas a – au moins pour l’instant – mis un terme à cette unification politique.

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