巴勒斯坦,四分五裂的家庭

乔治·W·布什总统呼吁以色列、巴勒斯坦和支持“两国并立模式”的周边国家举行新一轮的和平谈判,这一进展虽然比预想中的更加迟缓,但也理当受到人们的欢迎。但重启和平进程的努力目前却碰到了新的僵持局面:那就是必须将哈马斯领导的加沙和法塔赫领导的西岸这两个互相敌对的巴勒斯坦团体同时纳入到和平进程中来。

哈马斯/法塔赫的对峙标志着巴勒斯坦政治局势发生了戏剧性的改变,截至到目前为止,巴勒斯坦政治的重中之中一直是结束以色列占领,建立独立的巴勒斯坦国。这种变化也使和平谈判的复杂性大大增加,而和谈是巴勒斯坦人和“四方集团”(美国、欧盟、联合国和俄罗斯)赖以维系加沙地带和西岸地区统一的根基所在。

颇具讽刺意味的是,这些地区是在经历了长达19年的分裂后,在以色列赢得1967年战争后获得了重新统一。此前,埃及统治着加沙,而约旦则吞并了西岸。在以色列占领下,随着巴勒斯坦民族权力机构(PA)1994年的成立,上述地区在地理上仍然保持着分裂状态,而在政治上却已经实现了统一。哈马斯接管加沙地带——至少从目前来看——结束了这种政治上的统一状态。

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