pakistan electricity Rizwan Tabassum/AFP/Getty Images

A persistente crise energética do Paquistão

ISLAMABAD – Durante quase uma década, faltou ao Paquistão a energia de que necessita, com produtores e consumidores em todo o país a enfrentarem faltas de energia que duram até 12 horas por dia. A causa desta crise é a má governação. Porém, tanto as autoridades como os doadores de ajuda ignoram teimosamente o óbvio, e em vez disso continuam a prosseguir intervenções dispendiosas e, em última instância, ineficazes.

A experiência do Paquistão é um estudo de caso sobre o modo como os países pobres têm frequentemente dificuldades em formular e implementar reformas, nomeadamente as reformas necessárias para escaparem à pobreza. E, na verdade, a actual crise energética do Paquistão está a enfraquecer o seu desenvolvimento económico: o Ministério das Finanças estima que as faltas de energia reduziram o crescimento económico anual em dois pontos percentuais, em média, ao longo dos últimos nove anos.

E não é tudo. Durante o mesmo período, o governo gastou mais de 10% do PIB para cobrir as perdas financeiras do sector energético. Isto significa que, se o sector energético do Paquistão tivesse sido alvo das reformas devidas, a economia do país poderia ter crescido de forma significativamente mais rápida, cerca de 4% ao ano, e potencialmente criando um número suficiente de empregos para uma população jovem e em crescimento.

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