pakistan electricity Rizwan Tabassum/AFP/Getty Images

Krisis Energi Berkepanjangan Pakistan

ISLAMABAD – Selama hampir satu dekade, Pakistan mengalami kekurangan energi, dimana para produsen dan konsumen diseluruh negeri mengalami pemadaman listrik hingga 12 jam per hari. Akar dari krisis ini adalah pengelolaan yang buruk. Namun baik pihak berwenang dan pemberi donor sama-sama tidak menyadari hal yang sudah jelas, dan justru terus melakukan intervensi yang mahal dan tidak efektif.

Pengalaman Pakistan adalah sebuah studi kasus yang memperlihatkan bagaimana negara-negara miskin seringkali menghadapi kesulitan untuk merumuskan dan melaksanakan reformasi, termasuk reformasi yang diperlukan untuk keluar dari kemiskinan. Dan, memang benar, krisis energi Pakistan yang sedang berlangsung mempersulit pembangunan perekonomian: Kementrian Keuangan memperkirakan bahwa kekurangan energi telah mengurangi pertumbuhan ekonomi tahunan sebesar rata-rata dua persen, selama sembilan tahun terakhir,

Dan hal ini bertambah buruk. Selama periode yang sama, Pemerintah Pakistan telah menghabiskan lebih dari 10% PDB untuk menutupi kerugian finansial sektor energi. Hal ini berarti bahwa jika sektor energi Pakistan bisa direformasi dengan baik, maka perekonomian negara tersebut dapat tumbuh dengan jauh lebih cepat – yaitu sekitar 4% per tahun – dan hal ini berpotensi untuk menciptakan lapangan kerja yang cukup untuk generasi muda dan populasi yang terus meningkat.

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