pakistan electricity Rizwan Tabassum/AFP/Getty Images

La crise énergétique continuelle du Pakistan

ISLAMABAD – Pendant près d'une décennie, le Pakistan a manqué de l'énergie dont il a besoin, entraînant pour les producteurs et les consommateurs à travers le pays des pannes de courant jusqu'à 12 heures par jour. La mauvaise gouvernance est à l'origine de cette crise. Pourtant, tant les autorités que les donateurs d'aide s’obstinent à ne pas vouloir reconnaître l'évidence. Au lieu de cela, ils continuent de poursuivre des interventions coûteuses et au final inefficaces.

L'expérience du Pakistan représente un cas d’étude de la difficulté de nombreux pays pauvres à formuler et à mettre en œuvre des réformes, y compris lorsque ces dernières sont nécessaires pour échapper à la pauvreté. C’est ce qui se passe au Pakistan, où la crise énergétique en cours entrave le développement économique. Le ministère des Finances estime que les pénuries d'énergie ont réduit la croissance économique annuelle de deux points de pourcentage, en moyenne, au cours des neuf dernières années.

Et il y a pire. Au cours de la même période, le gouvernement a dépensé plus de 10% du PIB pour couvrir les pertes financières du secteur de l'énergie. Cela signifie que, si le secteur de l'énergie du Pakistan avait été réformé correctement, l'économie du pays aurait pu croître beaucoup plus rapidement – à concurrence d'environ 4% par an – ce qui aurait pu potentiellement créer un nombre suffisant d'emplois pour sa population jeune et en croissance.

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