pakistan electricity Rizwan Tabassum/AFP/Getty Images

巴基斯坦的长期能源危机

伊斯兰堡—近十年来,巴基斯坦的能源都跟不上需要,生产者和消费者每天最多只能用上12个小时的电。这场危机的根源在于拙劣的治理。但当局和援助出资者也没有充分认识显而易见的问题,反而不断地采取成本高昂、最终却效率低下的干预措施。

巴基斯坦的经验向我们展示了穷国为何常常难以制定和实施改革,包括摆脱贫困所需要的改革。事实上巴基斯坦的能源危机拖累了它的经济发展:据其财政部估算,能源短缺在过去九年里导致每年经济增长下降了两个百分点。

情况还在恶化。同一时期,政府投入了超过GDP的10%的资金用于填补能源部门的财务亏损。这意味着,如果巴基斯坦能源部门进行合理的改革,巴基斯坦经济原本能够实现显著更快的增长——大约每年4%——有可能给年轻人和不断增长的人口制造足够的就业岗位。

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