pakistan electricity Rizwan Tabassum/AFP/Getty Images

أزمة الطاقة المستديمة في باكستان

إسلام آباد ــ لا تزال باكستان عاجزة عن تدبير احتياجاتها من الطاقة رغم مضي ما يقرب من عقد على هذه الأزمة، وسط معاناة المنتجين والمستهلكين في أنحاء البلاد من انقطاع التيار الكهربائي لمدد تصل إلى 12 ساعة يوميا. وتعود جذور هذه الأزمة في الأساس إلى الحكم السيئ، بيد أن السلطات ومانحي المساعدات يصرون على تجاهل هذا السبب الواضح، وبدلا من معالجته، نجدهم يواصلون تدخلاتهم المكلفة وغير المجدية في نهاية الأمر.

وتمثل التجربة الباكستانية دراسة حالة لطبيعة المعاناة والصعوبات التي غالبا ما تواجهها الدول الفقيرة في صياغة وتنفيذ الإصلاحات، بما في ذلك الإصلاحات الضرورية للإفلات من براثن الفقر. ومما لا شك فيه أن أزمة الطاقة القائمة في باكستان تقوض جهود التنمية الاقتصادية هناك، حيث أشارت تقديرات وزارة المالية إلى تسبب نقص الطاقة في انخفاض معدل النمو الاقتصادي السنوي بواقع نقطتين مئويتين في المتوسط خلال السنوات التسع الماضية.

ومما زاد الوضع سوءا إنفاق الحكومة أكثر من عشرة بالمئة من الناتج المحلي الإجمالي خلال هذه الفترة لتغطية الخسائر المالية بقطاع الطاقة، ما يعني أنه لو جرى إصلاح قطاع الطاقة في باكستان بالصورة الملائمة، لكان من الممكن أن يحقق اقتصاد الدولة نموا أسرع بكثير ــ بنسبة تقارب 4% في العام ــ ولأمكن خلق عدد كاف من الوظائف لسكان يتزايد عددهم ويغلب عليهم سن الشباب.

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