Farage Niklas Halle'n/Stringer

L’art de l’intégration européenne

LONDRES – L'année écoulée a été remplie de moments critiques. Mis à part la victoire de Donald Trump à l'élection présidentielle aux États-Unis, certaines des faiblesses de l'Union européenne ont été pleinement révélées, avec le vote du Royaume-Uni en faveur d’une sortie de l’Union jetant une lumière particulièrement sévère sur le bloc. Mais le Brexit ne précipitera pas inévitablement la disparition de l'Union. Au lieu de cela, il pourrait servir d’avertissement, stimulant l'action en vue de répondre aux problèmes de l'UE.

Certains dirigeants européens tentent de répondre à cet appel, en exhortant les Etats membres de l'UE à « compléter l'Union ». Sans le Royaume-Uni, soutiennent-ils, il sera plus facile de faire avancer l'intégration, puisque les autres membres sont un peu moins hétérogènes et se mettront donc plus facilement d'accord sur les mesures que la Grande-Bretagne aurait pu bloquer.

Une telle mesure – dont on a parlé constamment depuis le début de la crise de l'euro – serait une union bancaire. Bien que des progrès importants aient déjà été réalisés sur ce front, l'intégration bancaire européenne est loin d'être complète. Parmi ce qu’il reste à faire, il y a un régime d'assurance-dépôts et la création d'une tranche senior d'actifs souverains sûrs, ou de titres sans risque à l'échelle de la zone euro.

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