Nuestro desequilibrado mundo

La búsqueda de un nuevo Director Gerente del Fondo Monetario Internacional nos recuerda vívidamente lo injustas que son las instituciones internacionales actuales. Como fueron creadas en el mundo de la posguerra de 1945, reflejan realidades que han dejado de existir hace mucho.

La organización y la asignación del poder en las reuniones de las Naciones Unidas, del FMI, del Banco Mundial y del G7 reflejan un equilibrio mundial que desapareció hace mucho. Después de que Alemania y el Japón fueran los agresores derrotados en la segunda guerra mundial, la Unión Soviética representó una amenaza de la mayor gravedad y China estaba sumida en una guerra civil que llevaría al poder a los comunistas de Mao. Gran parte de los países del llamado tercer mundo eran independientes desde hacía poco o seguían siendo colonias; todos ellos eran pobres.

En 1945, había 74 países independientes en el mundo; hoy hay 193. Fuera de China, Cuba y Corea del Norte, el comunismo es popular sólo en los cafés europeos occidentales y en algunas universidades americanas. Alemania está reunificada y gran parte del tercer mundo está creciendo a un ritmo más rápido que el primer mundo, se fabrican programas informáticos en Bangalore y los programas americanos de posgrado, incluidas las escuelas de administración de empresas, reciben miles de solicitudes de estudiantes chinos inteligentes.

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