Margaret Scott

Notre crise post-moderne

BERLIN – Le week-end du 7 au 9 mai, l’Union européenne a bien failli voir le fond de l’abîme. L’euro a vacillé, et avec lui l’intégration européenne dans son ensemble. Jamais, depuis l’époque précédant la signature du Traité de Rome en 1957, l’Europe n’avait été en aussi grand danger. La stabilisation financière de la Grèce et de la monnaie commune européenne constituait peut-être le sujet de la pièce, mais le titre en était “A la rescousse des banques, acte II.”

Prolonger la situation de non paiement de la Grèce aurait eu pour effet non seulement de mettre en péril le Portugal, l’Espagne et les économies les plus faibles de la zone euro, mais d’exposer l’Europe à une ruée sur ses titres. Et cela n’aurait pas manqué de faire tomber les banques et les compagnies d’assurance, “trop grosses pour faire faillite” soi-disant, en Europe et au-delà.

Lors de la réunion tenue par les Etats membres de l’Union européenne à Bruxelles pour régler la crise grecque, le marché interbancaire, déterminant pour la liquidité des institutions financières, avait recommencé à se bloquer, précisément comme après la faillite de la banque Lehman Brothers en septembre 2008. De nouveau, le système financier global se retrouvait au bord du précipice. Les Etats membres de la zone euro et le FMI n’ont réussi à éviter un nouveau krach du système, qu’une fois unis dans l’adoption d’un plan de sauvetage de 750 milliards de dollars.

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