Pour l'ouverture du Japon

Après une dizaine d'années de stagnation, l'économie japonaise a l'air de se redresser. Mais les apparences sont parfois trompeuses, et en dépit de progrès et de réformes, la situation demeure affligeante dans de nombreux domaines essentiels.

Le déclin du Japon est manifeste. A la fin des années 80, il était de bon ton dans certains milieux japonais influents de déclarer la fin de la Pax Americana, et son remplacement imminent en Asie par la Pax Japonica. L'économie américaine fonçait, celle du Japon s'envolait, et on prévoyait qu'en 2005 le Japon prendrait les devants. Les choses se sont déroulées tout autrement, et cela témoigne d'une certaine inertie.

Les problèmes sous-jacents du Japon sont légion. Les responsables politiques et les chefs d'entreprise japonais ne comprennent pas le concept de "destruction créative", et trop de dinosaures industriels sont donc maintenus en vie artificiellement. Ainsi, tandis que certaines entreprises - comme Toyota ou Canon - enregistrent d'excellents résultats, les nouvelles initiatives et les nouveaux entrepreneurs ont peu de chances de se faire une place. Si l'économie japonaise était un ordinateur, il aurait un disque dur rempli de programmes obsolètes et une fonction "effacement" qui ne marche plus.

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