NY Stock exchange Bryan R. Smith/AFP/Getty Images

Come essere un’economia aperta

MILANO – Il termine “apertura” ha due significati connessi tra loro ma anche distinti. Può riferirsi a qualcosa di illimitato, accessibile e finanche vulnerabile, oppure a qualcosa, magari una persona o un’istituzione, che è trasparente invece che riservato.

Il primo significato viene spesso applicato al commercio, agli investimenti e alle tecnologie (sebbene la maggior parte delle definizioni non associ opportunità con vulnerabilità) che sempre guidano i cambiamenti economici strutturali, con particolare riferimento all’occupazione. Il cambiamento strutturale può essere benefico e perturbatore allo stesso tempo, e per questo i policymaker devono trovare un equilibrio tra il principio astratto di apertura e delle misure concrete volte ad arginare gli effetti peggiori del cambiamento. 

Per fortuna, la ricerca accademica e la prospettiva storica possono aiutare i policymaker a rispondere a questa sfida in modo intelligente. Analizziamo l’esperienza dei piccoli paesi sviluppati del Nord Europa, che hanno un valido motivo per essere aperti: se non lo fossero, sarebbero costretti a sovra-diversificare i settori commerciali della loro economia per soddisfare la domanda interna. Ciò imporrebbe costi elevati poiché le dimensioni ridotte del mercato interno impedirebbero loro di realizzare economie di scala connesse alla tecnologia, allo sviluppo dei prodotti e alla manifattura.  

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