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如何成为一个开放经济体

发自米兰——“开放”这个词拥有两个相互关联但截然不同的含义。它可能意味着某些东西不受限制,易于获取,却又较易受到侵害;或者可能意味着某个个人或者机构行事光明磊落,从不鬼鬼祟祟。

第一个含义通常适用于贸易,投资和技术(尽管大多数定义并不会将机会等同于易受侵害性),这些因素总是在推动结构性经济变革,特别是在就业方面。而这类结构性变革有时会同时具备得益和破坏的双重属性,对此政策制定者们一直以来都奋力想在抽象的开放原则和具体措施之间找寻平衡,以避免变革所导致的最恶劣影响。

幸运的是,学术研究和历史视角可以帮助政策制定者们明智地应对这一挑战。以北欧小型发达国家的经验为例,这些国家往往倾向于开放,而且理由也相当充分:如果不开放,它们就得被迫让本国经济中的可交易部分实现过度多样化以满足国内需求。但这会导致成本居高不下,因为狭窄的国内市场将阻碍它们在技术,产品开发和制造方面实现规模效应。

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