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Mesurer la liberté d'Internet

ROME – L'année dernière, au cours d'une vague de manifestations politiques meurtrières en Éthiopie, le gouvernement a bloqué plus de 15 sites Internet de médias ainsi que WhatsApp, l'application de tchat sur smartphone. Des sites soutenant la liberté d'expression et les droits des LGBTQ+, ainsi que ceux qui proposent des outils de contournement de la censure, comme Tor et Psiphon, ont également été supprimés.

Tout cela a été découvert grâce à l'utilisation d'un logiciel appelé ooniprobe, conçu pour mesurer et pour détecter la censure sur les réseaux et sur Internet. Ooniprobe a été développé il y a plus de cinq ans par l'Observatoire ouvert des interférences réseau (OONI), avec lequel je collabore, afin d'accroître la transparence, la responsabilité et la surveillance de la censure sur Internet. Le logiciel est gratuit et open source, qui signifie que n'importe qui peut l'utiliser. C'est d'ailleurs ce que font déjà des dizaines de milliers d'utilisateurs d'ooniprobe dans de plus de 190 pays.

Ces utilisateurs contribuent à la collecte de millions de mesures du réseau, qui sont toutes publiées sur OONI Explorer, sans doute la plus grosse ressource accessible au public sur la censure d'Internet. Grâce à leur utilisation d'ooniprobe, nous avons découvert l'ampleur de la vague de censure de l'année dernière en Éthiopie, ainsi que les détails de nombreux autres cas de censure ailleurs dans le monde.

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