Paul Gilham/Getty Images

Ein ökonomischer Mythos von olympischen Ausmaßen

NORTHAMPTON – Die olympische Legende besagt, die Spiele seien für das Land und die Stadt, wo sie stattfinden, ein wirtschaftlicher Segen. In Wirklichkeit aber sind sie oft das Gegenteil, wie Rio de Janeiro gerade erkennen muss.

Betrachten wir erst einmal, wie die Gastgeberstadt überhaupt ausgewählt wird. Das Internationale Olympische Komitee (IOC), eine unregulierter globaler Monopolist, führt alle zwei Jahre eine Auktion durch, wo die Städte der Welt gegeneinander wetteifern, welche von ihnen am geeignetsten ist. Der Bietprozess einer Kandidatenstadt findet normalerweise unter der Leitung von Unternehmensmanagern – oft aus der Bauindustrie – statt, die von der Vorbereitung der Spiele profitieren. Unter anderem bieten die Städte aufwändige Sportarenen, pompöse Feierstätten, neue Transportsysteme, luxuriöse Unterkünfte für Athleten sowie Medien- und Übertragungszentren.

Das Ergebnis dieses Prozesses kann leicht vorhergesagt werden: die Stadt, die am meisten bietet, gewinnt. Die Kosten für die Ausrichtung Sommerolympiade liegen heute zwischen 15 und 20 Milliarden Dollar, darunter für den Bau und die Renovierung von Veranstaltungsorten, das operative Geschäft, die Sicherheit und zusätzliche Infrastruktur. Die Gesamteinnahmen für die Gastgeberstadt setzt sich aus ihrem Anteil an den internationalen Rundfunkverträgen (etwa 25%, die anderen 75% gehen an das IOC), nationalem und internationalem Sponsoring, Ticketverkäufen und Fanartikeln zusammen und betragen etwa 3,5-4,5 Milliarden Dollar. Also sind die Kosten um gut 10 Milliarden Dollar höher als die Erträge.

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