Le droit de se nourrir

NEW YORK – Les filières de production alimentaires sont désormais mondiales. En Amérique du Nord, ce qui s’y mange parcourt en moyenne 2 400 kilomètres entre le champ et l’assiette. À mesure que les filières alimentaires se sont transformées, les efforts assurant l’accessibilité à tous se sont intensifiés et le « droit à l’alimentation » est un mouvement important dans le cadre de changements qui se propagent de la base vers le sommet.

En septembre, l’Inde a adopté une loi historique sur la sécurité alimentaire, garantissant cinq kilogrammes de blé, de riz et d’autres denrées alimentaires par des subventions mensuelles aux deux tiers de la population, avec une aide particulière pour améliorer l’alimentation des femmes enceintes, des enfants d’âge scolaire et des personnes âgées. Même si le système est criblé de failles, le fait de traiter l’accès à la nourriture comme un droit effectif est un pas important dans la bonne direction.

De tels progrès, qui s’étendent bien au-delà de l’Inde, font suite à une décennie d’activisme mondial qui a mis au défi la logique des filières existantes de production alimentaire comme jamais auparavant. Depuis l’adoption de la Déclaration universelle des droits de l’homme en 1948, les droits politiques comme la liberté de parole ont été affirmés, tandis que le droit à l’alimentation a été largement négligé.

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