La vieja izquierda frente a la nueva izquierda en América Latina

Hay dos maneras de interpretar los últimos resultados electorales en América Latina. La primera y más obvia es que el supuesto giro a la izquierda está perdiendo fuerza rápidamente. En las últimas semanas, el ultranacionalista Ollanta Humala, un clon del Presidente venezolano Hugo Chávez, fue derrotado en el Perú, el conservador Álvaro Uribe obtuvo una arrolladora victoria en Colombia, con un 62% de los votos, y Andrés Manuel López Obrador ha perdido terreno en vista a las elecciones presidenciales del 2 de julio en México. Todos estos sucesos parecen contradecir la tendencia hacia la izquierda en América Latina.

Sin embargo, es posible mirarlos de otra manera. Sí, el Presidente Uribe ganó la reelección, pero la gran sorpresa en Colombia fue el fin del sistema bipartidista que había dominado el país por décadas, y el surgimiento del izquierdista Polo Democrático como la segunda fuerza política de la nación.

De manera similar, si bien Alan García ganó en el Perú, no proviene de un partido de izquierda dura que ha terminado por seguir el buen camino (como Lula da Silva en Brasil, Michelle Bachelet en Chile y Tabaré Vázquez en Uruguay). Pertenece al APRA, partido fundado en los años 20 por Víctor Raúl Haya de la Torre y que sigue siendo una de las organizaciones populistas más antiguas y anacrónicas de la región.

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