ラテンアメリカにおける、新左派vs.旧左派

ラテンアメリカで最近行われた選挙の結果には、解釈の仕方が2通りある。一つめで、最も明らかなのは、予期された左派への転換は、速いスピードで流れから逸れて来ている、という解釈である。最近のペルーにおいて、ベネズエラ大統領ウゴ・チャベスのクローンで超国粋主義者であるオランタ・ウマラが破れ、またコロンビアでは、保守派のアルバロ・ウリベが得票率62%の圧倒的勝利を収め、そしてメキシコでは、アンドレス・マヌエル・ロペス・オブラドールが7月2日に開かれる大統領選挙で他勢力に遅れをとっている。これらの個別の展開は、見たところ、ラテンアメリカにおける左寄りの傾向に矛盾するようである。

しかし、これらの現象には、もう一つの見かたがある。そう、ウリベ大統領は再選挙に勝利したが、コロンビアにおける大きな驚きは、これまで数十年にわたって国を支配してきた2党制が終わったことと、左翼ポロ・デモクラティコが、国で2番目に大きい政党として出現したことであったのだ。

同様に、アラン・ガルシアはペルーで当選したが、彼は今回やっと光が当たった極左党(例:ブラジルのルーラ・ダ・シルバ、チリのミッチェル・バチェレ、そしてウルグアイのタバレ・バスケス)の出身ではない。彼のAPRA党は、1920年代にビクトル・ラウル・アヤ・デラ・トーレによって創設され、かの地域において、最も古参かつ時代錯誤の人民主義組織の一つである。

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