Нефть в Мексиканском заливе: вчера и сегодня

ВЕНА. Взрыв 20 апреля на нефтяной платформе Deepwater Horizon, управляемой корпорацией «Бритиш Петролеум» (British Petroleum - BP) в Мексиканском заливе, привел к утечке нефти, получившей самую широкую за несколько десятилетий огласку. Предыдущий выброс нефти, произошедший в этих же водах 31 год назад, южнее у мексиканского побережья Мексиканского залива привел к крупнейшему, в мирное время, загрязнению нефтью.

Платформа, на которой произошел указанный инцидент, называлась Ixtoc 1. Она эксплуатировалась государственной мексиканской компанией Pemex. Две аварии, а также загрязнения, к которым они привели, имеют ряд одинаковых признаков, несмотря на то что характер разливов нефти в море на протяжении тридцати лет, прошедших между двумя авариями, кардинально изменился.

Обычно, за большое количество разливов нефти несли ответственность нефтяные танкеры. Мытье резервуаров танкеров увеличило большое количество маленьких разливов нефти, а аварии с танкерами, такие как катастрофы с танкерами Torrey Canyon, Exxon Valdez, Metula и St. Peter, привели к значительным разливам нефти и нефтепродуктов. Выбросы нефти происходят достаточно часто, но в основном на суше либо на мелководье, и большинство из них может быть остановлено относительно легко.

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