海湾石油的今与昔

维也纳——4月20日,英国石油公司所属墨西哥湾钻井平台“深水地平线”的爆炸引发了数十年来最广为人知的一次石油泄漏事故。31年前在墨西哥湾更南端水域发生的另外一起井喷事故演变成了和平时期规模最大的一次石油泄漏。

发生事故的钻井平台“伊克斯托克I号”归属墨西哥国有石油企业墨西哥石油公司所有。 虽然这两次事故相距的三十年间海上石油泄漏的一般特点发生了重大变化,但这两次事故及其引发的泄漏却有若干特点是极其相似的。

油轮曾经是造成大部分原油泄漏的罪魁祸首。油仓清洗引发了数量庞大的小规模泄漏事件,而诸如托利峡谷号、埃克森·瓦尔德斯号和圣彼得堡号等油轮事故则导致了大规模集中的原油泄漏。井喷事故也屡见不鲜,但绝大多数都发生在陆地或浅水区域,可以比较容易地加以遏制。

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