О банках и пакетах мер по выходу из кризиса

ПАЛО-АЛЬТО – Первые признаки подъема в производстве, который уже набирает силу в Азии, дают надежду на некоторое скромное оживление после текущего глубокого глобального экономического спада. Но сильный и длительный экономический подъем маловероятен до тех пор, пока не будут приведены в порядок ядовитые активы, отравляющие балансовые отчеты финансовых учреждений и сбивающие с толку высокопоставленных чиновников практически повсюду.

Финансовая система – это сложное взаимодействие кредиторов и заемщиков, покупателей и продавцов, держателей сбережений и инвесторов. Когда она успешно функционирует, она уравновешивает риск и награду, а также новшества и безопасность.

Банки и другие финансовые фирмы берут ссуды на короткий срок – в последние годы все больше у коммерческого рынка ценных бумаг, а не у депозитов – а предоставляют кредиты на длительный срок по более высоким процентным ставкам, принимая на себя как кредитный риск (неплатежа), так и риск процентных ставок. Положительный момент – это то, что увеличение заёмного капитала для повышения прибыли увеличивает доходы, а отрицательный – то, что это связано с риском. Тогда не удивительно, что у крупных финансовых фирм, которые потерпели неудачу – Bear Stearns, Fannie Mae и Freddie Mac, а также AIG и Lehman Brothers – был самый высокий заёмный капитал, в 30 или 40 раз превышающий их капитал.

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