Vladimir Lenin, Russian Bolshevik leader Heritage Images/Getty Images

Die Oktoberrevolution im postfaktischen Russland

MOSKAU – Russland ist in einem Kampf zwischen offizieller Geschichte (die der Staat erzählt) und Gegengeschichte (der Erzählung der Zivilgesellschaft und den Erinnerungen der Bevölkerung) gefangen. Angesichts des hundertsten Jahrestages der Oktoberrevolution in diesem Jahr wird der Konflikt in den Mittelpunkt des öffentlichen Lebens rücken.

Präsident Wladimir Putin ist die Verkörperung einer nostalgischen Sehnsucht nicht so sehr nach der Sowjetära als nach der Sakralisierung des Staates in jener Zeit, die die Regierung in die Lage versetzt hat, mittels „Fake News“ (um einen modernen gängigen Begriff dafür zu verwenden) ihre eigenen Ziele voranzutreiben. Tatsächlich umfassen die Erinnerungen an die Oktoberrevolution ein gutes Maß an Ambivalenz und Beklommenheit. Schon das Wort „Revolution“ ist den modernen russischen Eliten ein Graus, da ihm tendenziell nun einmal Attribute wie „orangefarben“ oder „farbig“ vorangestellt sind – das bête noire für Putins Regime. Zugleich war die Revolution ein wichtiger Moment in Russlands Geschichte und damit eine Quelle der nationalen Identität.

Für die Kommunistische Partei ist der Jahrestag eine eindeutige Gelegenheit, sich selbst als Nachfolger einer großen, dauerhaften antikapitalistischen Tradition darzustellen, wenn auch einer, die inzwischen die marxistisch-leninistischen Lehre und jene der Russisch-Orthodoxen Kirche zusammenführt. Doch ist die Kommunistische Partei nicht länger an der Macht, und für die aktuellen Machthaber ist es sehr viel schwieriger, einen in sich stimmigen Ansatz um hundertsten Jahrestag zu formulieren.

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