الاقتصاد في عهد أوباما: السنة الأولى وما بعدها

بيركلي ـ لم يكن العام الأول للرئيس باراك أوباما في السلطة سهلاً على الصعيد الاقتصادي. فقد ورث نظاماً مالياً على وشك الانهيار، وبات لزاماً عليه أن يتعامل مع اقتصاد راكد ومعدلات بطالة تتجه نحو الارتفاع. كما وجد نفسه في مواجهة ميلٍ من جانب الكونجرس وأهل صناعة الاقتصاد إلى الخلط بين الشرور والمتاعب الحقيقية وبين تلك المتوهمة.

وكانت قوة أوباما كامنة في عدم السماح للحل الأمثل بأن يصبح عدواً للحل الطيب. فقد كانت خطة التحفيز التي أقرها بقيمة 787 مليار دولار أميركي بمثابة حل طيب. لا شك أنها كانت قائمة على افتراضات متفائلة وغير واقعية بشأن عمق الركود، وقوة التعافي الاقتصادي لاحقاً، والذروة التي قد تبلغها مستويات البطالة. فكانت حزمة التحفيز شديدة الميل نحو التخفيضات الضريبية التي قد تدفع نحو تعزيز الادخار وليس الاستهلاك. وفي غياب استراتيجية مالية متوسطة الأمد تتمتع بالمصداقية الكافية، أدت هذه الحزمة بلا ضرورة إلى استفزاز رسل الهلاك المالي. ولكن رغم كل ذلك فإن حزمة التحفيز كانت كافية لحقن الاقتصاد بالجرعة التنشيطية اللازمة.

ويؤلمني أن أعترف بأن الجهود التي بذلها أوباما من أجل تثبيت استقرار النظام المصرفي كانت ناجحة على الرغم من نفسها. إذ أنني كنت لأفضل ضخ مبالغ أضخم من رأس المال، وكان بودي لو أرى إدارته تستغل نفوذها في التخلص من الأساليب الإدارية المسؤولة عن خلق الفوضى المالية في المقام الأول.

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